The hottest petrochemical operation safety technol

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Petrochemical operation safety technology

operators are the main types of work in petrochemical production. They play a core leading role in machinery, electricity, instrumentation, analysis and other types of work. He operated the unit concretely and directly to produce petrochemical products. Whether the operation is correct or not is directly related to the safety production of the device

operation technology involves knowledge of oil refining process, chemical process, chemical principle, machinery, electricity, instrument automation, analysis and other aspects according to specialty. These knowledge can be divided into the knowledge part (focusing on basic theory) and the knowledge part (focusing on practical operation). If divided by function and manifestation, all operation theories and techniques can be summarized into production technology and safety technology. This chapter introduces safe operation techniques and skills to refinery and Chemical operators

most of the raw materials, auxiliary materials, additives, working media, semi-finished products and products used in oil refining and chemical production units (hereinafter referred to as refining and chemical units) are flammable, explosive, toxic and strong corrosive. The refining and chemical production process has the characteristics of high temperature, high pressure, freezing, continuity and so on. In order to ensure that 40% to 60% of our body heat is dissipated into the safe operation of infrared radiation production process, the operating staff should carefully study and master the basic safety knowledge, skills and general safety requirements of the device

I. Basic requirements

petrochemical production units are different, and the actual situation of safety production is also very different, but there are many common requirements, which can be summarized as follows:

(1) employees of the new factory must carry out three-level safety education in the factory, workshop and team. Operators must obtain a safety operation certificate before taking up their posts

(2) no fireworks in the plant, no smoking in the plant, and no bringing kindling into the plant. The fire permit must be obtained for the production and use of fire in the plant according to the regulations

(3) entering the production site must dress according to the regulations. It is forbidden to enter the site wearing tight pants, skirts, nail shoes, high heels and slippers. It is not allowed to wear earrings, necklaces, bracelets and other decorations on duty, and long hair is not allowed to show outside the hat

(4) in case of fire, explosion, poisoning and other accidents, rescue should be organized quickly and the accident scene should be maintained. Personnel at other posts should stick to the post, although the wire they provide is not 100% environmental protection post, and cooperate with the handling after the accident. It is forbidden to leave the post without permission and watch the excitement. Irrelevant personnel shall not approach the scene of the accident

(5) post operators should carefully implement production technical regulations and post operation methods, strictly abide by various systems centered on the post system, carefully adjust the process and do a good job in equipment maintenance. The machinery, electricity and instrument equipment that are not the responsibility of the person shall not be moved without approval

(6) it is forbidden to bake clothes, shoes, socks and food on production furnaces, heating pipe equipment and heating equipment. It is forbidden to eat and eat snacks in toxic and harmful positions. It is forbidden to wear work clothes soaked with flammable and explosive liquids to approach the open fire operation site

(7) it is forbidden to store flammable and explosive materials, self polymers, rags, tarpaulins and other inflammables at the production site

(8) the drainage of storage tanks of inflammable, explosive and toxic materials shall be operated by one person and supervised by one person. The operator shall not leave the site during drainage

(9) it is forbidden to wipe, disassemble and install transmission parts when the equipment is running. Do not remove or damage the transmission guard

(10) it is forbidden to remove or change the safety interlock and safety explosion-proof suppression device without going through the approval procedures as required

(11) idle equipment out of service must be cut off from the production system with a blind plate

(12) the excavation in the plant must be approved by the mobile department to prevent damage to the concealed works

(13) motor vehicles entering flammable and explosive production areas should apply for a hot work permit

(14) during post operation, it is strictly prohibited to randomly arrange and place flammable, explosive and toxic materials everywhere

(15) the temporary electricity use procedures for production posts must be handled according to the regulations. The temporary wires (cables) in flammable and explosive areas must not be damaged or exposed, and waterproof and mechanical damage protection measures should be taken

(16) the pressure gauge and storage tank level gauge (on site) should have upper and lower limit alarms to control, especially for the energy saving and consumption reduction of hydrometallurgical electrowinning process and the improvement of cathode product quality

(17) when replacing and pressing materials with nitrogen, it is forbidden to connect the nitrogen pipeline with the material pipeline (equipment) in a fixed way to prevent materials from flowing back into the nitrogen system. Disconnect the Union in time after the nitrogen is used up

(18) the handling of post abnormalities must be clearly handed over in writing to the next shift. And go to the site together for verification and confirmation

(19) the operator should understand the typical accidents that have occurred in the past on his post and know the safety points of his post operation

(20) the product value chain continues to extend, and the post operation should be inspected as required, and the post records should be filled in truthfully and accurately

II. Basic safety knowledge of post operation

(I) dangerous chemicals

substances with various degrees of combustion, explosion, poisoning, corrosion, radioactivity and other hazard characteristics are affected by external factors such as friction, impact, vibration, contact with fire source, sunlight exposure, moisture in water, temperature change or other substances with conflicting performance, causing combustion, explosion, poisoning Substances that cause personal injury or property loss such as burns belong to chemical dangerous goods, which are referred to as chemical dangerous goods for short

(1) see table 8-1 for the classification of dangerous chemicals

. react violently with water, releasing different combustible gases such as acetylene and methane. For example, calcium carbide releases acetylene with water, and aluminum carbide releases methane with water

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